PART I •  THE RESEARCH PROCESS AND

DATA COLLECTION 1

Module 1: The Research Process

Introduction

Read the Literature and Identify Gaps or Ways to Extend the Literature

Examine the Theory

Develop Your Research Questions and Hypothesis Develop Your Research Method

Analyze the Data

Write the Research Paper

 

Module 2: Sampling Techniques

Introduction

Sample Design

Selecting a Sample

  • Probability and Non probability Sampling
  • Identifying a Sampling Frame
  • Determining the Sample Size
  • Sample Selection Methods

Sampling Weights

  • Calculating Sampling Weights
  • Using Sampling Weights

 

Module 3: Questionnaire Design

Introduction

Structured and Semi-Structured Questionnaires

Open- and Closed-Ended Questions

General Guidelines for Questionnaire Design

Designing the Questions

  • Question Order
  • Phrasing the Questions

Recording Responses

  • Responses in the Form of Continuous Variables
  • Responses in the Form of Categorical Variables

Skip Patterns

Ethical Issues

 

PART II • DESCRIBING DATA

Module 4: An Introduction to Stata

Introduction

Opening Stata and Stata Windows

  • Results Window
  • Review Window
  • Command Window
  • Variables Window
  • Properties Window

Working With Existing Data

Entering Your Own Data Into Stata

Using Log Files and Saving Your Work

Getting Help

  • Help Command
  • Search Command
  • Stata Website
  • UCLA’s Institute for Digital Research and Education Website

 

 

Module 5: Preparing and Transforming Your Data

Introduction

Checking for Outliers

Creating New Variables

  • Generate
  • Using Operators
  • Recode
  • Egen

Missing Values in Stata

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

 

 

Module 6: Descriptive Statistics

Introduction

Types of Variables and Measurement

Descriptive Statistics for All Types of Variables:

Frequency Tables and Modes

Frequency Tables

Mode

Descriptive Statistics for Variables Measured as Ordinal, Interval,

and Ratio Scales: Median and Percentiles

  • Median
  • Percentiles

Descriptive Statistics for Continuous Variables: Mean, Variance,

Standard Deviation, and Coefficient of Variation

  • Mean
  • Variance and Standard Deviation
  • Coefficient of Variation

Descriptive Statistics for Categorical Variables Measured on a

Nominal or Ordinal Scale: Cross Tabulation

Applying Sampling Weights

Formatting Output for Use in a Document (Word, Google Docs, etc.)

Graphs to describe data

  • Bar Graphs
  • Box Plots
  • Histograms
  • Pie Charts

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

 

 

PART III • TESTING HYPOTHESES

Module 7: TheNormalDistribution

Introduction

The Normal Distribution and Standard Scores

Sampling Distributions and Standard Errors

Examining the Theory and Identifying the Research

Question and Hypothesis

Testing for Statistical Significance

Rejecting or Not Rejecting the Null Hypothesis

Interpreting the Results

Central Limit Theorem

Presenting the Results

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

 

 

Module 8: Testing Hypothesis About aSingle Mean

Introduction

When to Use the One-Sample t Test

Calculating the One-Sample t Test

Conducting a One-Sample t Test

Interpreting the Output

Presenting the Results

 

Module 9: TestingaHypothesisAboutTwoIndependentMeans

Introduction

When to Use a Two Independent-Samples t Test

Calculating the t Statistic

Conducting a t Test

Interpreting the Output

Presenting the Results

 

 

Module 10: One-WayAnalysisofVariance

Introduction

When to Use One-Way ANOVA

Calculating the F Ratio

Conducting a One-Way ANOVA Test

Interpreting the Output

Is One Mean Different or Are All of Them Different?

Presenting the Results

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

 

 

Module 11: CrossTabulationandtheChi-SquaredTest

Introduction

When to Use the Chi-Squared Test

Calculating the Chi-Square Statistic

Conducting a Chi-Squared Test

Interpreting the Output

Presenting the Results

Summary of Commands Used in This Chapter

 

PART IV • EXPLORING RELATIONSHIPS

Module 12: LinearRegressionAnalysis

Introduction

When to Use Regression Analysis

Correlation

Simple Regression Analysis

Multiple Regression Analysis

Presenting the Results

 

 

Module 13: RegressionDiagnostics

Introduction

Measurement Error

Specification Error

  • Types of Specification Errors
  • Diagnosing Specification Error
  • Correcting Specification Error

Multicollinearity

Heteroscedasticity

Endogeneity

Nonnormality

Presenting the Results

 

Module 14: Regression Analysis With Categorical

Dependent Variables

Introduction

When to Use Logit or Probit Analysis

Understanding the Logit Model

Running Logit and Interpreting the Results

  • Running Logit Regression in Stata
  • Interpreting the Results of a Logit Model

Logit Versus Probit Regression Models

Regression Analysis With Other Types of Categorical

Dependent Variables

Presenting the Results

 

PART V • WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER

Module 15: Writing a Research Paper

Introduction

Introduction Section of a Research Paper

Literature Review

Theory, Data, and Methods

Results

  • Logical Sequence
  • Tables, Figures, and Numbers
  • Reporting Results From Statistical Tests
  • Active Versus Passive Voice and the Use of First-Person Pronouns
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